Cancer which is a severe disease has always been a great concern for doctors. So there have been studies being carried out to understand why some changes in human DNA transform the normal cells of human body to cancerous cells.
Now what is DNA? Human body cells contain a chemical in all of them which is known as DNA and it is that which makes up human genes that tell about the way the cells function. That is why children resemble their parents because they are the sources of DNA of their children, but its affects are not limited to looks. It has more work to do. There are also genes which have information as to the controlling of cell growth, cell divide and die.
Points to remember
The genes with the name oncogenes promotes division of cells and another genes naming tumor suppressor genes functions to slow down the cell division and makes dying of cells at the correct time. If both of these are affected by DNA changes then there arises a chance for causing cancer. So neither the DNA changes should turn on oncogenes nor should the tumor suppressor genes turn off. So a cell can be cancerous with changes in various types of genes.
Another reason of cells becoming cancerous is because of Ultraviolet radiation. If the DNA is damaged then it affects some genes which function as the controller of growth and division of cells which in turn may cause cells to develop cancer. This cause of cancer can from the main source of UV radiation that is the sunlight or can be from other sources which are man-made, but whatever be the source of radiation it is not ascertained as to when it starts damaging the DNA and cause cancer.
Different stages of the disease
It can be caused in few years or can take a longer duration in case if body was exposed to UV radiation earlier. In melanoma cells there are some types of genes whose DNA are frequently damaged. Mostly the changes in DNA are caused by sunlight and it is not inherited. And there are also such cells that have the capability of repairing the DNA which is damaged better in comparison to others which lessens the chances of developing of melanoma in these persons. So the more advancement in researches which help in understanding the ways leading to the development of melanoma is expected to cure and prevent cancer.
Half of the melanomas are those in which growth is facilitated by the transformation in the BRAF which comes with the melanoma development and are not inherited. So the drugs which can affect the melanoma cells with this change are being researched on. The families which have the melanomas higher in them pass them from one generation to another which is increases the risk. The genes which are mostly affected are the tumor suppressor whose job is to control cell growth which results in overgrowth and also cancer. Though there are such moles greater in number which does not turn to melanoma and there are some which do.